Preheat oven to 450 degrees F. Place tomato halves in large bowl. Toss with 1/2 tablespoon oil and set aside.
Place broccoli on large baking sheet with sides. Drizzle remaining 1 1/2 tablespoons oil on top and toss well. Arrange broccoli on baking sheet, leaving room for tomatoes (which will be added later). Roast 5 minutes.
Add tomato halves in single layer, cut side up. Sprinkle vegetables with garlic, salt, and freshly ground pepper to taste. Return pan to oven and roast until vegetables are just fork-tender, 10 to 15 minutes. Remove from oven.
Meanwhile, in small dry skillet, toast almonds over medium heat, stirring occasionally, until golden brown, 4 to 5 minutes. Remove from pan; let cool.
Divide arugula among dinner plates. Top with roasted vegetables. Sprinkle with toasted nuts and vinegar and serve hot.