Soak rice noodles in warm water to cover in a large bowl until they are limp and white, about 20 minutes.
Heat oil over high heat in a wok until very hot. Add the garlic and stir-fry until golden, about 10 seconds. Add the egg and cook, stirring, until scrambled, about 30 seconds. Add shrimp and stir-fry until they curl and turn pink, about 2 minutes.
Drain the noodles and add to the wok, tossing with tongs until they soften and curl, about 1 minute. Add bean sprouts, scallion greens, vinegar, fish sauce, sugar and chile-garlic sauce; toss until the shrimp are fully cooked and noodles are heated through, 1 to 2 minutes. Sprinkle with peanuts and serve immediately.