Heat oil in a large nonstick skillet over medium heat. Add onions, chives (or scallions), shallots, all but 1 teaspoon of the garlic, chiles, ginger and curry powder. Cook, stirring, until just beginning to brown, 4 to 5 minutes. Stir in tomatoes, 1/2 cup parsley, cilantro, thyme and bay leaf. Increase heat to high and cook, stirring, for 1 minute. Stir in rum and bring to a boil. Add fish stock (or clam juice) and tomato paste. Reduce heat and simmer until thickened and well-flavored, about 10 minutes.
Meanwhile, place shrimp in a shallow glass dish and toss with 2 tablespoons lime juice, salt and pepper. Cover with plastic wrap; refrigerate for 20 minutes.
Stir the shrimp into the onion-tomato mixture. Gently simmer over low heat, turning occasionally, until the shrimp are curled and opaque, 3 to 5 minutes. Stir in the remaining 1 teaspoon garlic. Taste and add more lime juice, if desired. Sprinkle with the remaining 1/2 cup parsley and serve immediately.