About Hypertension


Blood pressure is measured with a cuff device. The numbers that are given as your blood pressure results (e.g., 130 over 80) are systolic and diastolic pressure readings, respectively. The systolic reading represents your blood pressure as your heart beats, while the diastolic is the pressure between beats. With hypertension, both systolic and diastolic readings may be high, or the systolic alone may be high, a condition known as isolated systolic hypertension (ISH). Both types can lead to serious complications if not treated appropriately.

Normal blood pressure is defined as 120/80 mmHg for people without diabetes and <130/80 mmHg for those with diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) has established the following clinical levels of hypertension1:

  • Stage one hypertension. Consistent (i.e., two or more consecutive) readings of 140-159/90-99 mmHg.
  • Stage two hypertension. Consistent readings of 160/100 mmHg or higher.
  • Prehypertension. Consistent readings of 120-139/80-89 mmHg. (Editor's note: prehypertension is a clinical category for people without diabetes; blood pressure goals for people with diabetes remain < 130/90 mmHg).

Since high blood pressure is frequently a "silent" condition with few to no symptoms, it's important to have your blood pressure taken every time you visit your diabetes care provider. You can also purchase a blood pressure cuff device to take home readings. Talk to your doctor about recommendations for equipment and testing.


In most cases of mild or even moderate hypertension, there are no symptoms. However, people with extremely elevated blood pressure may experience:

  • Headache
  • Vision problems
  • Abdominal or chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea

Treatment and Prevention

Medications that may be prescribed to reduce blood pressure include diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, and calcium channel blockers. The American Diabetes Association also recommends that most adults (i.e., over 21) with diabetes who have a history of risk factors for CAD, PVD, hypertension, or heart attack take a daily dose of coated aspirin.

Other strategies for prevention:


  • Stay at a healthy body weight. Excess pounds promote hypertension.
  • Keep active. Exercise can help lower your blood pressure.
  • Eat a balanced diet low in saturated and total fat, cholesterol, and sodium and rich in vegetables, fruit, and nonfat dairy (the DASH, or Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, diet).
  • Quit smoking. Nicotine raises blood pressure.
  • Keep alcohol intake at a moderate level.
  • Practice good stress management. Emotional or physical stress can raise blood pressure; talk to your provider about relaxation techniques and strategies.

Reviewed by Francine Kaufman, MD. 4/08

Last Modified Date: December 31, 2014

All content on dLife.com is created and reviewed in compliance with our editorial policy.

Sign up for FREE dLife Newsletters

dLife Membership is FREE! Get exclusive access, free recipes, newsletters, savings, and much more! FPO

You are subscribed!
You are subscribed!
You are subscribed!
99 Views 0 comments
by Brenda Bell
There was a test strip that X used. There was blood on edge of the test strip that X used. The test strip that X used had sat on the desk. The desk is now tainted by the blood on the test strip that X used. There was work on the desk. The work is now tainted from the desk that held the test strip that X used. The work was picked up by Y. Y's hands are now contaminated by X's blood from the test strip that lie on his desk when Y's work was...