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Archive - 06 - 2006

Coffee Intake Linked to Lower Diabetes Risk

Posted by dlife on Mon, Jun 26, 06, 02:40 PM 0 Comment

June 26, 2006 (Eurekalert) - Drinking coffee, especially when it is decaffeinated, may be associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, according to a report in the June 26 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.Previous studies in the United States and Europe have linked coffee to a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, according to background information in the article. The link between coffee and diabetes risk appears to be consistent across different ages and body weights; in addition, most research has found that the more coffee an individual generally drinks, the lower his or her risk for diabetes. However, it remains unclear whether it is the caffeine or another ingredient in coffee that may confer a protective effect.Mark A. Pereira, Ph.D., and colleagues at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, studied coffee intake and diabetes risk in 28,812 postmenopausal women in Iowa over an 11-year period. At the beginning of the study, in 1986, the women answered questions about their risk factors for diabetes, including age, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking history. They also reported how often they consumed a variety of foods and beverages over the previous year, including regular and decaffeinated coffee.Based on information reported in the initial questionnaire, about half of the women (14,224) drank one to three cups of coffee per day; 2,875 drank more than six cups; 5,554 four to five cups; 3,231 less than one cup; and 2,928 none. Over the following 11 years, 1,418 of the women reported on surveys that they had been newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. After adjusting the data for some of the other diabetes risk factors, women who drank more than six cups of any type of coffee per day were 22 percent less likely than those who drank no coffee to be diagnosed with diabetes; those who drank more than six cups of decaffeinated coffee per day had a 33 percent reduction in risk compared with those who drank none.Overall caffeine intake did not appear to be related to diabetes risk, further suggesting that some other ingredient in coffee was responsible. "Magnesium, for which coffee is a good source, could explain some of the inverse association between coffee intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus through known beneficial effects on carbohydrate metabolism," the authors write. However, the study found no association between this mineral and diabetes risk. Other minerals and nutrients found in the coffee bean--including compounds known as polyphenols that have also been shown to help the body process carbohydrates and antioxidants that may protect cells in the insulin-producing pancreas--may contribute to its beneficial effects and should be examined in future studies."In summary, we observed an inverse association between coffee consumption, especially decaffeinated coffee consumption, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus over an 11-year period in postmenopausal women residing in the state of Iowa," the authors conclude. "Although the first line of prevention for diabetes is exercise and diet, in light of the popularity of coffee consumption and high rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus in older adults, these findings may carry high public health significance."

One-Third of Adults with Diabetes Still Don’t Know They Have It

Posted by dlife on Sun, Jun 25, 06, 02:43 PM 0 Comment

May 25, 2006 - The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in U.S. adults age 20 and older has risen from about 5.1 percent to 6.5 percent, according to researchers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), who analyzed national survey data from two periods 1988 to 1994 and 1999 to 2002. However, the percentage of adults with undiagnosed diabetes did not change significantly over the years studied. About 2.8 percent of U.S. adults one-third of those with diabetes still dont know they have it.The study, published in the June 2006 issue of Diabetes Care, notes that type 2 diabetes accounts for up to 95 percent of all diabetes cases and virtually all undiagnosed diabetes cases. Diabetes is a group of diseases marked by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both. It is the most common cause of blindness, kidney failure, and amputations in adults and a major cause of heart disease and stroke.Over the years studied, about 26 percent of adults age 20 and older continued to have impaired fasting glucose (IFG), a form of pre-diabetes. IFG, in which blood glucose measured after an overnight fast is high but not yet diagnostic of diabetes, increases the risk of heart disease as well as the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.Its important to know if you have pre-diabetes or undiagnosed type 2 diabetes, said Dr. Larry Blonde, chair of the National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), jointly sponsored by the NIH, CDC, and 200 partner organizations. You should talk to your health care professional about your risk. If your blood glucose is high but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes, losing weight and increasing physical activity will greatly lower your risk of getting type 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes, controlling your blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol will prevent or delay the complications of diabetes.The researchers also found that:nearly 22 percent of people age 65 and older had diabetes.about 13 percent of non-Hispanic blacks age 20 and older had diabetes. Diabetes was twice as common in non-Hispanic blacks compared to non-Hispanic whites.about 13 percent of non-Hispanic blacks age 20 and older had diabetes. Diabetes was twice as common in non-Hispanic blacks compared to non-Hispanic whites.about 8 percent of Mexican Americans age 20 and older had diabetes. Because the average age of Mexican Americans is younger than for other groups, the age-and sex-adjusted prevalence of diabetes in Mexican Americans is twice that of non-Hispanic whites and about equal to that of non-Hispanic blacks.IFG and undiagnosed diabetes were about 70 percent more common in men than in women, especially in non-Hispanic white men.nearly 40 percent of people age 65 and older had IFG, which becomes more common with age.In the study, the researchers compared two slices of data, one from 1988 to 1994 and the other from 1999 to 2002. The data were derived from a national sample of U.S. adults age 20 years and older who took part in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted by the CDCs National Center for Health Statistics. Survey participants were interviewed in their homes and received a physical exam with a blood test, which included a glucose reading taken after an overnight fast. The NHANES is unique because it includes a blood test that detects undiagnosed diabetes and IFG.This study updates and generally corroborates earlier analyses that were based on 2 years of NHANES data, said lead author Catherine Cowie, Ph.D., of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). Were seeing a rising prevalence of diagnosed diabetes that is not substantially offset by a drop in the rate of undiagnosed about one-third of adults with diabetes still dont know they have it. Another 26 percent of adults have a form of pre-diabetes.Pre-diabetes, which usually causes no symptoms, is serious because many people with the condition develop type 2 diabetes in the next 10 years. Also, pre-diabetes substantially raises the risk of a heart attack or stroke even if type 2 diabetes does not develop.People with pre-diabetes may have IFG or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or both.In IFG, blood glucose is high (100 to 125 milligrams per deciliter or mg/dL) after an overnight fast but not high enough to be diagnostic of diabetes.In IGT, blood glucose is high (140 to 199 mg/dL) 2 hours after drinking a sugary drink in an oral glucose tolerance test but not high enough to be diagnostic of diabetes.In the current study, researchers did not assess the prevalence of IGT because an oral glucose tolerance test was not a part of the survey.People with pre-diabetes can often prevent or delay diabetes if they lose a modest amount of weight by cutting calories in their diet and increasing physical activity (for example, walking 30 minutes a day 5 days a week). A major study of people with IGT has shown that lifestyle changes leading to a 5 to 7 percent weight loss lowered diabetes onset by 58 percent.If you are over age 45, you should consult your health care provider about testing for pre-diabetes or diabetes. If you are younger than 45, overweight, and have another risk factor, you should ask about testing. You are at greater risk of developing pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes if you:are age 45 or olderhave a family history of diabetesare overweighthave an inactive lifestyle (exercise less than three times a week)are members of a high-risk ethnic population (e.g., African American, Hispanic/Latino American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian American, Pacific Islander)have high blood pressure: 140/90 mm/Hg or higherhave an HDL cholesterol less than 35 mg/dL or a triglyceride level 250 mg/dL or higherhave had diabetes that developed during pregnancy (gestational diabetes) or have given birth to a baby weighing more than 9 poundshave polycystic ovary syndrome, a metabolic disorder that affects the female reproductive systemhave acanthosis nigricans (dark, thickened skin around neck or armpits)have a history of disease of the blood vessels to the heart, brain, or legshave had IFG or IGT on previous testing.In its Small Steps. Big Rewards. Prevent Type 2 Diabetes campaign, the NDEP (www.ndep.nih.gov/) is reaching out to people at risk for type 2 diabetes with the message that they have the power to turn the tide against this disease. The NDEP campaign, Control Your Diabetes for Life, encourages people with diabetes to control their blood glucose as well as their blood pressure and cholesterol. By keeping all three as close to normal as possible, people with diabetes can prevent or delay the development and progression of diabetes complications, which affect the heart, eyes, nerves, kidneys, and blood vessels.For more diabetes statistics, http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/statistics/index.htm

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