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Archive - 08 - 2011

Eating Speed Linked to Weight

Posted by dlife on Wed, Aug 31, 11, 02:11 PM 0 Comment

August 31, 2011 (Otago University) Middle-aged women who eat slowly are much less likely to be overweight or obese than those who eat at a faster pace, according to new University of Otago research.In the first nationwide study of its kind anywhere, Department of Human Nutrition researchers analysed the relationship between self-reported speed of eating and body mass index (BMI) in more than 1500 New Zealand women aged between 40 and 50. Women in this age bracket are known to be at high risk of weight gain.Study principal investigator Dr Caroline Horwath says that after adjusting for other factors including age, ethnicity, smoking, physical activity and menopause status, the researchers found that the faster women reported their eating speed to be, the higher their BMI.For every one-step increase in a five-step scale ranging from very slow eating to very fast, the womens BMI increased by 2.8 %, which is equivalent to a 1.95 kg weight increase in a woman of average BMI for this group.Dr Horwath says that because the current study is unable by itself to show whether faster eating speed actually causes increased BMI, the researchers have been following up the women to see if faster eaters gain more weight over time.The size of the association found in this initial research suggests that if there is a causal link, reduction in eating speed is a very promising way to prevent weight gain and may lead to decreases in BMI similar or greater than those sustained in weight management programmes.Results from the 2-year follow-up are expected to be published next year. If analysis of the data confirms a causal relationship, Dr Horwath and her team will test interventions that include a focus on encouraging women to eat more slowly.If such interventions prove effective, they could be used alongside other non-dieting approaches we have previously trialled with overweight or obese women. These approaches successfully prevented weight gain in at-risk women and even produced significant weight loss in some. Our interventions included intensive training in relaxation techniques and how to recognise and avoid stress-related triggers for eating.Such non-dieting approaches are gaining increasing interest from dietitians, as the traditional dieting approach of restricting both calories and foods types has shown poor results in achieving long-term weight loss, she says.Studies have found that many dieters regain any weight they lose within five years and often end up heavier than when they began.The eating speed and BMI study is published in the latest issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association.

Diastolic Dysfunction Appears to Worsen Over Time; Associated With Increased Risk of Developing Heart Failure

Posted by dlife on Wed, Aug 24, 11, 09:11 AM 0 Comment

August 24, 2011 (JAMA) A follow-up of participants in a heart function study finds that the prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (left ventricular filling [with blood] is abnormal and is accompanied by elevated filling pressures) had increased; that diastolic function had worsened in a nearly a quarter of patients; and that participants who had diastolic dysfunction were more likely to develop heart failure, according to a study in the August 24/31 issue of JAMA. There is an emerging emphasis on understanding the progression from heart failure risk factors to asymptomatic ventricular dysfunction and eventually to symptomatic heart failure and death. Therefore, it is important to have population-based information on changes in cardiac function over time, according to background information in the article. little is known about time-dependent changes in diastolic function or their relationship to clinical heart failure. Garvan C. Kane, M.D., Ph.D., of the Mayo Clinic and Medical School, Rochester, Minn., and colleagues conducted a study to measure changes in diastolic function over time and to determine the relationship between diastolic dysfunction and the risk of subsequent heart failure. The study included participants enrolled in the Olmsted County Heart Function Study (OCHFS). Randomly selected participants 45 years or older (n = 2,042) underwent clinical evaluation, medical record abstraction, and echocardiography (examination 1 [1997-2000]). Diastolic left ventricular function was graded as normal, mild, moderate, or severe via testing. After 4 years, participants were invited to return for examination 2 (2001-2004). The group of participants returning for examination 2 (n = 1,402 of 1,960 surviving [72 percent]) then underwent follow-up testing for determination of new-onset heart failure (2004-2010). The researchers found that from examination 1 to examination 2, the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction of any degree increased from 23.8 percent to 39.2 percent. Moderate or severe diastolic dysfunction increased from 6.4 percent to 16.0 percent. Over 4 years, 23.4 percent of participants experienced worsening of diastolic function, 67.8 percent remained unchanged, and 8.8 percent experienced improved diastolic function. Age was predictive of the development of diastolic dysfunction, especially ages 65 years or older. In the analysis of the diastolic function of healthy participants (without hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, heart failure, or use of cardiovascular medications), incidence of diastolic dysfunction of any degree increased from 11.3 percent at examination 1 to 29.8 percent at examination 2. Among 423 healthy participants, 19.9 percent showed worsening diastolic function, 75.2 percent remained the same, and 5.0 percent improved. During 6.3 years of additional follow-up, 81 participants developed heart failure. Age 65 years or older was the strongest predictor of heart failure. The authors found that persistent or worsening diastolic dysfunction was associated with heart failure. Cumulative heart failure incidence was 2.6 percent in participants whose diastolic function remained normal or normalized between examinations; 7.8 percent in those with persistent, or progression to mild diastolic dysfunction; and 12.2 percent in those with persistent, or progression to moderate or severe diastolic dysfunction. Longitudinal evaluation of participants in the population-based OCHFS cohort reveals that left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is highly prevalent, tends to worsen over time, and is associated with advancing age. Worsening diastolic function can be detected even in apparently healthy persons. Although confirmation in other studies would be helpful, our data suggest that persistence or progression of diastolic dysfunction is a risk factor for heart failure in elderly persons, the researchers conclude.

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